I’m a goosebump kind of guy. Put on the right piece of music — preferably opera or a stirring piece of classical music — and I’ll be reacting with the familiar chills running up and down my arms, leaving the little hairs vibrating. The selection above from Mozart’s The Magic Flute, or a beautiful Puccini aria from La Boheme, or Wagner’s Siegfried’s Rhine Journey, among many others, will do it every time.
What causes goosebumps or, to use the more elegant French term, frisson? (Either of which, incidentally, is preferable in my book to the description used by some researchers — “skin orgasms” — which makes a pure, deep, emotional reaction to music sound a little bit tawdry and embarrassing.) Scientists aren’t quite sure. It’s pretty easy to identify the kinds of music that provoke the reaction; typically the selections involve soaring notes or unexpected changes in volume, tone, or harmony. But why do some people experience a noticeable physical reaction to such auditory stimulation?
Some scientists theorize that there are evolutionary roots to the reaction, because the arm hair response would help to warm our much hairier ancestors, but that doesn’t make much sense to me. After all, a significant portion of humans — somewhere between 20 and 40 percent — never experience goosebumps, which seems like a pretty big percentage if you’re positing that the reaction is somehow significant to evolutionary success. And I can’t exactly picture early hominids listening to Mozart or Bach or their prehistoric equivalent.
Other researchers think the goosebump phenomenon is tied to personality. The goosebump group will like this: some research studies indicate that those who shiver with frisson tend to get high marks in a personality trait called “openness to experience,” which is linked to a lot of positive characteristics like unusually active imaginations, appreciation of beauty and nature, intellectual curiosity, interest in trying out new experiences, and enjoyment of variety in life. That makes us goosebumpistas sound pretty superior, but I honestly doubt that there’s really a big difference between us and the frisson-free folk. I think it’s simply that people react to music differently.
There’s a reason why music was developed in the first place, after all. It enriches our existence and makes us feel good — a sensation that some of us experience physically. And we should be glad for that, too. Who knows? Maybe we wouldn’t have had the rich human tradition of beautiful music, in all its forms, if our ancestors hadn’t experienced a shudder of frisson once in a while.