Why do human beings make war on each other? It’s a question that has intrigued philosophers and scientists, poets and peasants for centuries.
A more interesting question, though, might be not why, but when — because figuring out when the mass killings began might help us to isolate why the human species fights wars in the first place.
A recent archaeological dig indicates that war is, unfortunately, much more ancient than we might have suspected. The find at Nataruk, Kenya, on the east coast of Africa, reveals a horrific battle between two tribes of hunter-gatherers that happened 10,000 years ago. One band captured the other, tied them up, and ruthlessly slaughtered every man, woman and child, including a woman whose pregnancy was far advanced. The 12 victims of the attack were shot with arrows, beaten, and suffered crushed skulls and broken necks. Their bodies were then shoved into a lagoon, where they sank into sediment and were preserved, to be found and studied by modern-day scientists.
Modern wars have been blamed on religion, nationalism, ideology, and quests for political power and glory by ruthless leaders. One school of thought — reflected in John Lennon’s Imagine — postulates that if those causes of conflict were somehow removed, people would live in peace. But the find in Kenya undercuts that simple premise, because 10,000 years ago was before the development of towns and villages, much less nation states, before the development of agriculture that caused humans to settle and begin to accumulate wealth, before the development of any known organized religion, and before any of the other attributes of modern culture that are typically cited as the causes of war.
The slaughter on the banks of the lagoon long ago occurred between two roaming bands of hunter-gatherers on what must have been a fertile and sparsely populated plain, with plenty of food for everyone. So, why the slaughter of an entire tribe, rather than the decision to reach an accord, share the land, and live in peace? It may be that humans, as a species, are just predisposed to war — which is a sobering thought, indeed.