Today NASA celebrates its 60th birthday. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was created when President Dwight D. Eisenhower signed the National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 on July 29, 1958.
NASA replaced the National Advisory Committee on Aeronautics, and President Eisenhower viewed the creation of the agency as an historic step, “further equipping the United States for leadership in the space age” and allowing it to make “an effective national effort in the fields of aeronautics and space exploration.” You can read the full text of President Eisenhower’s signing statement here.
It is not unusual for federal legislation to be hailed as historic when it is signed, but in the case of the National Aeronautics and Space Act that prediction was entirely accurate. I think it is safe to say that NASA has met, and greatly exceeded, the goal of allowing the United States to make “an effective national effort in the field of aeronautics and space exploration.” The Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs, the space shuttle and international space station, and the many unmanned probes and devices that have allowed us to better understand our solar system all bear the indelible imprint of NASA. NASA has taken human beings to the Moon and brought them safely back home and has given us up-close looks at Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, and their moons. NASA’s efforts have also helped to push advancements in science, technology, and other areas that have now become part of our lives and culture. By any measure, this still-sprightly 60-year-old has been a spectacular success.
Some people reflexively complain about the creation of any federal agency, but NASA is an example of how mobilizing an effort at the national level and entrusting it to knowledgeable people can accomplish great things. With private space exploration and travel looming on the immediate horizon, and Congress currently considering how to regulate those private efforts going forward, it will be interesting to see what the next 60 years bring for NASA — the little agency that could.
Forty-nine years ago, on July 20, 1969, the Lunar Module carrying Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed on the Moon. Neil Armstrong stepped off a ladder onto the lunar surface, spoke his famous words — “That’s one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind” — and history was made.
I was watching on that day, along with probably everyone else on the planet who had access to a TV set. I remember sitting with UJ and watching grainy black and white footage as the lunar module landed and then, later, Armstrong stepped into history. I was 12 years old. Even now, I still feel a little thrill just thinking about that day and that moment, when it seemed like anything was possible and it would be the start of a golden age of space exploration that would take human beings to Moon bases, Martian colonies, and on to the stars. Of course, that didn’t happen . . . but I still remember that awed and awesome feeling.
Let’s say your modest portfolio in the stock market has had a good run over the past year or so, and you’re looking for a new investment opportunity. Let’s posit, further, that you think Bitcoin is a curious bubble that’s going to burst someday, and that you’d rather put your money into a company that produces something more tangible and more futuristic.
It’s not easy for the casual investor. What we really need is for one of the stock exchanges to create a “space index,” just like there’s a Dow Jones “transportation index.” The index would identify the space-related public companies, mutual funds would be established to invest in each of the space index companies, and those of us who’d like to put our money in the heavens could buy into the mutual funds.
Hey stockbrokers! How about giving investors interested in space some help here?
Let’s pause for a moment, ignore the ugliness and failure that seems to boil out of the depths of Washington, D.C. on a daily basis, and consider for a moment something that everyone can agree America has done incredibly well: manned, and unmanned, space exploration.
Consider Voyager 1. It was launched 40 years ago, in September 1977, during the early years of the Carter Administration. With its sister probe Voyager 2, it successfully explored the major planets of our solar system, sending back fabulous pictures of Jupiter and the rings of Saturn and collecting data that gave us a better understanding of the two giants in the neighborhood of planets circling the Sun. I remember belonging to a group called The Planetary Society that supported space exploration and travel and getting some of the fantastic Voyager photos as part of my membership.
But then, Voyager 1 just kept going, and going, and going. It is now more than 13 billion miles away, and has officially gone past the boundaries of our solar system and is out in the trackless areas of interstellar space. And it’s still working, too. Recently NASA sent a message out to Voyager 1, instructing it to fire its trajectory correction maneuver thrusters for the first time since November 8, 1980, a few days after the presidential election in which Ronald Reagan beat Jimmy Carter. The Voyager flight team had to send the instructions in an outdated software language — imagine how much the computer world has changed since 1977! — and it took more than 19 hours for the instruction to reach Voyager 1, but the instruction worked, and the thrusters fired for the first time in 37 years. The firing of the thrusters allows Voyager to keep its communication antenna pointed in our direction and to keep sending us data as it moves farther out into the void.
It’s pretty amazing stuff, and Americans should be proud of this accomplishment and the planning, and engineering, and foresight that went into the Voyager program. Of course, we don’t hear about it, in the haze of coverage of presidential tweets and other current news — but it’s a noteworthy accomplishment just the same. Kudos to NASA!
Yesterday the SpaceX venture reached a new milestone: the company took a used rocket that it had recovered from a prior mission, relaunched it into space, deposited a customer’s satellite into orbit, and landed the rocket on a drone ship in the Atlantic Ocean so it can be used again, and again, and again.
As I’ve written before, private, commercial ventures like SpaceX are making significant progress in making space flight a common, everyday option. Yesterday’s flight was a key development in that effort, because a significant part of the cost of space flight has been rockets that are designed, built, and used only once. That single-use approach might have been viable back in the ’60s, when government funding was plentiful and the United States was on a national quest to be the first country to land a man on the Moon, but it’s simply not sustainable or feasible in our modern world of massive budget deficits and competing national priorities. It’s also an approach that commercial space concerns could never afford. That’s why SpaceX has been focused on developing technology that allows those expensive rockets to be reused.
No one should take away from the mighty, ground-breaking accomplishments of the Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, and space shuttle programs, and there remains a key role for governments in space exploration. Governments will always have more resources than businesses do, and the need for scientific exploration, and the technological developments that seem to inevitably accompany it, will often fall to governmental entities like NASA. But profit-making entities and capitalist risk-takers are adept at building on the foundation the government has laid and figuring out how to make things affordable and, not incidentally, profitable.
If tourist trips to the Moon and settlements on Mars are in our future — and I hope they are, because I still hold out hope that I might see a glorious Earthrise from the Moon some day — commercial concerns inevitably will play a huge role. SpaceX’s reusable rocket technology is another important step forward toward a future in which the “final frontier” becomes a much more accessible place.
Those of us who’ve been waiting patiently — for years, and years, and years — for the United States to get back into the manned space exploration mode have always thought that perhaps crass commercialism might be the impetus. If governments aren’t spurred by noble thoughts of advancing into the final frontier and exploring for the benefit of all mankind, maybe they’ll be motivated by cold hard cash. With a compelling case for a serious financial return from exploration, modern governments might — like the European nations exploring the western hemisphere during the 1400s and 1500s — be willing to commission a few ships, set sail, and see what they can find.
The asteroid, called 16 Psyche, is about the size of Massachusetts and has been battered by meteor strikes. It’s composed primarily of nickel and iron. The vast quantities of metal on the asteroid is a kind of treasure trove that causes NASA to say that 16 Psyche is worth about 10,000 quadrillion dollars. How big is a quadrillion? Well, apparently there are about one quadrillion ants on planet Earth. Multiply that mind-boggling number by 10,000, and you get the value of 16 Psyche. Even Bill Gates would be impressed by that sum.
Of course, we might not want to cart all of that metal back to Earth, because that would be pretty expensive. We might decide that the treasure trove would be better used to build settlements on Mars, or to manufacture space stations or space craft, or for any of countless potential uses of metal in space. And it’s all out there waiting for the first intrepid country, or group of countries, that is willing to go out and get it.
With all of the bad things happening in the world these days, it would be nice to turn our eyes skyward. I wouldn’t mind a little greed for $10,000 quadrillion if that’s what it takes to motivate us to get back into space to stay.
Tardigrades are extremely weird, extremely small creatures — but it looks like they’ve got a lot to teach us.
Tardigrades are eight-legged microscopic creatures that were first discovered about 450 years ago. They are undeniably ancient, having diverged from precursor animal species more than 600 million years ago. That makes them one of the oldest species on Earth. In close-up photos, they look like manufactured animals . . . or perhaps characters in a video game. They’re also called water bears, and some people curiously describe them as “adorable.”